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1.The site of life's origin is
   A)     the ocean's edge
   B)     unknown
   C)     under frozen oceans
   D)     near deep-sea vents

2. The earliest cellular life forms appear to have been
   A)     viruses
   B)     one-celled plants
   C)     one-celled animals
   D)     bacteria

3. Life on earth is carbon based. Similar molecules could be formed with
   A)     potassium
   B)     aluminum
   C)     iron
   D)     silicon

4. Scientists generally agree that the first molecules formed as life evolved were
   A)     proteins
   B)     RNA
   C)     peptides and nucleic acids
   D)     none of the above

5. Of the following, ____ was not contained in the Miller-Urey original mixture.
   A)     water
   B)     nitrogen
   C)     hydrogen
   D)     phosphorus

6. Which of the following organisms alive today is likely to be most similar to the first life forms that evolved on the earth?
   A)     methane-producing bacteria
   B)     cyanobacteria
   C)     algae
   D)     dinosaurs
   E)      humans

7. Which of the following gases is least likely to have existed in the early atmosphere of the earth?
   A)     NH3
   B)     CO2
   C)     N2
   D)     H2O
   E)      O2

8. How old is the earth?
   A)     4.6 billion years old
   B)     3.5 billion years old
   C)     2.5 billion years old
   D)     1.5 billion years old
   E)      0.5 billion years old

9. How long did the earth exist before life appeared on it?
   A)     4.5 billion years
   B)     2.7 billion years
   C)     1 billion years
   D)     1 million years
   E)      3 thousand years

10.Which of the following was not a source of energy on the early earth?
   A)     lightning
   B)     ozone
   C)     ultraviolet radiation
   D)     volcanic eruptions
   E)      all of the above were a source of energy

11. How long have bacteria lived on the earth?
   A)     4.5 billion years
   B)     3.5 billion years
   C)     2.5 billion years
   D)     1.5 billion years

12. Within our own solar system, the most likely candidate for having life on it is
   A)     our moon
   B)     Jupiter
   C)     Venus
   D)     the sun
   E)      Europa, a moon of Jupiter

13. The oldest fossils found so far date back to the
   A)     Cambrian Period
   B)     Archean Era
   C)     Phanerozoic Era
   D)     Proterozoic Era

14. Multicellular fossils appear at the beginning of the
   A)     Proterozoic Era
   B)     Precambrian Period
   C)     Archean Era
   D)     Phanerozoic Era
   E)      Cambrian Period

15. Which of the following traits evolved last (i.e., most recently)?
   A)     prokaryotic cells
   B)     eukaryotic cells
   C)     multicellularity
   D)     photosynthesis
   E)      heredity

16. Approximately what percentage of today's atmosphere is oxygen?
   A)     21%
   B)     73%
   C)     1%
   D)     50%
   E)      13%

17. What gas in today's atmosphere shields us from ultraviolet radiation?
   A)     ozone
   B)     nitrogen
   C)     oxygen
   D)     carbon dioxide
   E)      carbon monoxide

18. Miller and Urey's experiments proved that
   A)     life evolved on earth from inanimate chemicals
   B)     coacervates were the first type of protocells
   C)     complex organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions that probably existed on the early earth
   D)     RNA can act as an enzyme and assemble new RNA molecules from RNA templates
   E)      bacteria were the first type of living organism to appear on the earth

19. Which of the following is not a characteristic of all living organisms?
   A)     reproduction
   B)     heredity
   C)     metabolism
   D)     movement from place to place
   E)      all of the above are characteristics of all living organisms

20. Which of the following is not found in a lipid coacervate droplet or a proteinoid microsphere?
   A)     the ability to grow
   B)     a nucleus
   C)     a two-layer boundary
   D)     division by pinching in two
   E)      the ability to carry out chemical reactions

21. The Miller-Urey experiments yielded
   A)     urea
   B)     hydrogen cyanide
   C)     amino acids
   D)     all of the above
   E)      none of the above

22. What did Miller and Urey use as a source of energy in their experiments?
   A)     actual lightning
   B)     UV light
   C)     an electrical spark
   D)     radioactivity
   E)      volcanoes

23. The oxygen that is present in our atmosphere comes primarily from the
   A)     eruption of volcanoes
   B)     breakdown of ozone
   C)     breathing of animals
   D)     photosynthesis of plants, algae, and bacteria
   E)      none of the above

24. All of the following have been proposed as a type of protocell except
   A)     coacervates
   B)     microspheres
   C)     endosymbionts
   D)     micelles
   E)      protobionts

25. According to the scientific theory of the origin of life on earth, life arose spontaneously from inanimate chemicals. Do scientists think this process is still going on on our planet today?
   A)     yes, it probably is
   B)     no, because conditions on earth have changed and are no longer conducive to spontaneous evolution of life

26. Which of the following criteria is necessary and sufficient by itself to define life?
   A)     movement
   B)     sensitivity
   C)     complexity
   D)     all of the above
   E)      none of the above

27. Which of the following possible explanations of the origin of life on earth allows testable hypotheses to be constructed?
   A)     evolution
   B)     spontaneous origin
   C)     extraterrestrial origin
   D)     all of the above
   E)      none of the above

28. The Miller-Urey experiment demonstrated
   A)     how RNA could have been the first organic molecule
   B)     that simple molecules could not have evolved spontaneously
   C)     the kinds of molecules that could have been produced on the early earth
   D)     that oxygen was required for the formation of molecules on early earth
   E)      the formation of the first cells

29. What molecule produced in experiments performed by others (using Miller-Urey's model) is key to explaining the evolution of the hereditary molecules (DNA and RNA)?
   A)     hydrogen gas
   B)     oxygen
   C)     proline
   D)     aspartic acid
   E)      adenine

30. Evidence indicates that microfossils already existed at least:
   A)     4.5 billion years ago.
   B)     3.5 billion years ago.
   C)     1.3 billion years ago.
   D)     1 million years ago
   E)      6000 years ago

31. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the first cells?
   A)     heterotroph
   B)     single-celled
   C)     genome composed of RNA
   D)     anaerobic
   E)      prokaryotic

32. Microfossils of the earliest organisms indicate that they resemble the present day spirochetes.
   A)     True
   B)     False

33. The early earth was a harsh environment and present day organisms that could possibly have survived that type of environment are
   A)     eukaryotic organisms
   B)     archeabacteria
   C)     early plants called blue-green algae
   D)     protobionts
   E)      eubacteria

34. Microfossils found in rocks that date to be about 1.5 billion years old
   A)     are believed to be fossils from Mars meteorites that fell to earth
   B)     look very similar to present day cyanobacteria
   C)     are larger organisms compared to earlier microfossils
   D)     are simple in structure with no internal membranes
   E)      were originally thought to be the first eukaryotic cells but this has since been disproved

35. The endosymbiotic theory explains
   A)     the origin of all organelles in eukaryotic cells
   B)     how bacterial cells can invade eukaryotic cells and cause disease
   C)     how mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from free-living cells
   D)     how eukaryotic cells consume food
   E)      none of the above

36. Multicellularity arose only once in earth's history but this line branched out 4 times.
   A)     True
   B)     False

37. Living organisms are classified into 6 different kingdoms. However, these kingdoms are not static and will change in the future.
   A)     True
   B)     False


  1. 1.  B      2. D       3. A       4. D     5.  D    6. A      7. E      8.  A     9. C    10. B
  2. 11. B    12. E     13. B     14. D    15. C   16. A    17. A    18. C   19. D     20. B 
  3. 21. D    22. C     23. D     24. C    25. B   26. E    27. A    28. C    29.E     30. B
  4. 31. C    32. B     33. B     34. C    35. C   36. B    37. A