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1. A sarcomere
A.      is a section of a myofibril.
B.      gets shorter when it contracts.
C.      has striations.
D.      All of the choices are correct.

2. During muscular contraction
A.      actin and myosin filaments slide past each other.
B.      ATP supplies energy.
C.      calcium ions (Ca++) are involved.
D.      all of the above

3. At a neuromuscular junction,
A.      a nerve impulse causes the release of a neurotransmitter.
B.      a neurotransmitter causes calcium to be released into the muscle cell.
C.      A & B
D.      none of the above

4. Which is NOT a function of muscles?
A.      cause movement
B.      produce heat
C.      absorb nutrients
D.      maintain posture

5. A skeletal muscle cell
A.      has light and dark bands (striations).
B.      has only one nucleus.
C.      is under involuntary control.
D.      None of the above are true

6. The origin of the biceps brachii is
A.      the attachment of the muscle that remains relatively fixed during contraction.
B.      the scapula.
C.      proximal radius.
D.      A & B

7. The stages in muscle contraction include a
A.      nerve impulse reaching a neuromuscular junction.
B.      nerve impulse stimulating the release of calcium ions.
C.      actin filaments sliding past myosin filaments.
D.      all the above are true

8. The functional unit of a muscle fiber is the
A.      sarcomere.
B.      myofilament.
C.      myofibril.
D.      neuromuscular junction.

9. Which of the following statements is NOT true about muscle activity.
A.      Muscles can only pull, they never push.
B.      All muscles have at least two attachments: the origin and insertion.
C.      During contraction, the muscle origin moves toward the insertion.
D.      All muscles cross at least one joint.

10. Muscle fatigue is due, in part, to the accumulation of
A.      lactic acid.
B.      citric acid.
C.      ATP.

D.      ACTH.


1.     D     2.     D     3.     C     4.     C      5.     A     6.     D      7.     D     8.     A     9.     C     10. A


1. All of the following are functions of the skeletal system EXCEPT
A.      support
B.      blood cell production
C.      calcium storage
D.      excretion

2. The shaft of a long bone is called
A.      epiphysis.
B.      diaphysis.
C.      periosteum.
D.      endosteum.

3. Osteoclasts
A.      deposit calcium into bone.
B.      destroy bone matrix.
C.      are a type of white blood cell.
D.      A and C are correct.

4. Fat is stored in
A.      compact bone.
B.      spongy bone.
C.      red bone marrow.
D.      yellow bone marrow.

5. All of the following are facial bones EXCEPT
A.      nasal bone
B.      maxilla
C.      mandible
D.      ethmoid bone

6. Which of the following is a cranial bone?
A.      vomer bone
B.      lacrimal bone
C.      zygomatic bone
D.      sphenoid bone

7. The bone that does not articulate with any other bone is the
A.      vomer bone.
B.      zygomatic bone.
C.      hyoid bone.
D.      ethmoid bone.

8. All of the following are bones of the thorax EXCEPT
A.      clavicle
B.      sternum
C.      true ribs
D.      false ribs

9. The pelvic girdle consists of the
A.      humerus and radius.
B.      ulna and radius.
C.      hip bones.
D.      clavicle and scapula.

10. The bone of the upper arm is the
A.      radius.
B.      ulna.
C.      humerus.
D.      femur


1.     D     2.     B     3.     B     4.     D      5.     D     6.     D      7.     C     8.     A     9.     C     10. C


1. Which of the following are functions of the blood?
A.      transportation
B.      regulation
C.      protection
D.      all of the above

2. The blood volume of an averaged sized male is
A.      3 to 4 liters.
B.      4 to 5 liters.
C.      5 to 6 liters.
D.      6 to 7 liters.

3. Which of the following belongs to agranular leukocytes?
A.      neutrophil
B.      basophil
C.      platelet
D.      monocyte

4. Which of the following cells do NOT have a nucleus?
A.      erythrocytes
B.      granulocytes
C.      leukocytes
D.      agranulocytes

5. The pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen is
A.      erythropoietin.
B.      melatonin.
C.      hemoglobin.
D.      urobilinogen.

6. An increase in the number of white blood cells is called
A.      anemia.
B.      leukopenia.
C.      leukocytosis.
D.      polycythemia.

7. Stoppage of bleeding is called
A.      hemostasis.
B.      vascular spasm.
C.      thrombosis.
D.      coagulation.

8. Heredity deficiencies of coagulation is referred to as
A.      anemia.
B.      hemophilia.
C.      hemolysis.
D.      leukemia.

9. A blood clot transported by the blood stream is a(n)
A.      platelet plug.
B.      thrombus.
C.      embolus.
D.      thrombin clot.

10. A person with blood type A has
A.      B antigens on the red blood cells.
B.      A antibodies in the plasma.
C.      A antigens on the red blood cells.

D.      Rh antigen on the red blood cells


1. D      2. C    3. D      4. A      5. C     6. C     7.A      8.B     9.C     10. C    


1. The layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the inside of the heart is called
A.      myocardium.
B.      pericardium.
C.      endocardium.
D.      epicardium.

2. Blood transported by the pulmonary veins returns to the
A.      left atrium.
B.      right atrium.
C.      right ventricle.
D.      left ventricle.

3. The valve between the left ventricle and the blood vessel leaving the left ventricle is the
A.      bicuspid valve.
B.      tricuspid valve.
C.      pulmonary semilunar valve.
D.      aortic semilunar valve.

4. The bulk of the heart consists of
A.      cardiac muscle.
B.      smooth muscle.
C.      striated muscle.
D.      connective tissue. 

5. The valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the
A.      tricuspid valve.
B.      bicuspid valve.
C.      mitral valve.
D.       semilunar valve.

6. Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called
A.      arteries.
B.      veins.
C.      capillaries.
D.      All of the above.

7. The smallest type of blood vessels are
A.      arteries.
B.      arterioles.
C.      venules.
D.      capillaries.

8. Blood pressure is highest in the
A.      arteries.
B.      arterioles.
C.      veins.
D.      capillaries.

9. Which of the following increase(s) blood pressure?
A.      increased cardiac rate
B.      increased peripheral resistance
C.      increased blood volume
D.      All of the above.

10. The pulse is a direct reflection of the
A.      cardiac output.
B.      blood pressure.
C.      venous return.

D.      heart beat.


1. C   2. A    3. D    4. A    5. A    6. A    7. D    8. A    9. D   10 . D 


1. Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the digestive system?
A.      liver
B.      gallbladder
C.      pancreas
D.      spleen

2. Salivary amylase secreted into the oral cavity starts the digestion of
A.      proteins.
B.      starch.
C.      lipids.
D.      amino acids.

3. The pancreatic duct transports secretions from the pancreas to the
A.      stomach.
B.      duodenum.
C.      liver.
D.      colon.

4. All of the following are substances found in pancreatic juice except
A.      pepsin.
B.      trypsin.
C.      amylase.
D.      lipase.

5. Bile is produced in the
A.      liver.
B.      small intestine.
C.      pancreas.
D.      stomach.

6. The final portion of the small intestine is the
A.      ileum.
B.      duodenum.
C.      jejunum.
D.      colon.

7. The first portion of the large intestine is the
A.      colon.
B.      cecum.
C.      anal canal.
D.      rectum.

8. The term metabolism refers to
A.      anabolic reactions.
B.      catabolic reactions.
C.      oxidation.
D.      All the chemical reactions of the body.

9. Glucose is stored in the liver as
A.      starch.
B.      fat.
C.      glycogen.
D.      ATP.

10. During digestion, proteins are broken down into molecules of
A.      glucose.
B.      fatty acids.
C.      amino acids.

D.      nucleic acids.


1..D       2. B     3. B       4. A      5.  A      6. A     7. B    8. D    9.C    10.C


1. The exchange of gases between blood and cells is called
A.      pulmonary ventilation.
B.      internal respiration.
C.      external repiration.
D.      cellular respiration.

2. Which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting prtion of the respiratory system?
A.      alveoli
B.      bronchioles
C.      nose
D.      pharynx

3. The structure which closes off the larynx is the
A.      glottis.
B.      Adam's apple.
C.      epiglottis.
D.      vocal cords.

4. Which of the following describes a correct order of structures in the respiratory passeways?
A.      pharynx, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles
B.      larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchiles, bronchi
C.      trachea, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles
D.      pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

5. The exchange of gases occurs in the
A.      trachea.
B.      bronchioles.
C.      alveoli.
D.      bronchus.

6. The volume of air that can be exhaled after normal exhaltation is the
A.      tidal volume.
B.      residual volume.
C.      inspiratory reserve volume.
D.      expiratory reserve volume.

7. The volume of air in a normal breath is called
A.      total lung capacity.
B.      vital capacity.
C.      tidal volume.
D.      residual volume.

8. Gas exchange in the lungs happens by the process of
A.      osmosis.
B.      diffusion.
C.      exocytosis.
D.      active transport.

9. Most oxygen in the blood is transported
A.      as gas dissolved in plasma.
B.      as oxyhemoglobin.
C.      as carboxyhemoglobin.
D.      as bicarbonate.

10. The primary chemical stimulus for breathing is the concentration of
A.      carbon monoxide in the blood.
B.      carbon dioxide in the blood.
C.      oxygen in the blood.

D.      carbonic acid in the blood.


1. B   2. A   3. C     4. E     5. C   6. D    7.  C    8. B      9. B      10. B 


1. The kidneys
A.      help regulate blood volume.
B.      help control blood pressure.
C.      help control pH.
D.      All of the above are correct.

2. The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is referre to as
A.      retroperitoneal.
B.      retroabdominal.
C.      posterior.
D.      dorsal.

3. All of the following belong to the urinary system EXCEPT the
A.      urethra.
B.      ureter.
C.      bladder.
D.      prostate.

4. The functional unit of the kidney is called a
A.      glomerulus.
B.      nephron.
C.      corpuscle.
D.      calyx.

5. Most glucose molecules are reabsorbed in the
A.      proximal convoluted tubules.
B.      distal convoluted tubules.
C.      collecting ducts.
D.      loop of Henle.

6. Which of the following substances can be eliminated from the blood by tubular secretions?
A.      potassium ions
B.      hydrogen ions
C.      ammonium ions
D.      All of the above.

7. The structure that connects a kidney to the urinary bladder is the
A.      ureter.
B.      urethra.
C.      renal pelvis.
D.      collecting duct.

8. Urine is expelled from the urinary bladder by
A.      excretion.
B.      defecation.
C.      micturition.
D.      filtration.

9. All the following are principle solutes of urine EXCEPT
A.      urea.
B.      creatinine.
C.      glycogen.
D.      uric acid.

10. Which of the following hormones increase reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts?
A.      renin.
B.      ADH.
C.      aldosterone.

D.      insulin.  


1. D        2. A    3. D      4. B     5. A      6. D      7. A       8. C      9. C     10. B 


1. Neurons that conduct nerve impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system are
A.      motor neurons.
B.      efferent neurons.
C.      interneurons.
D.      sensory neurons.
2. Processes that carry nerve impulses away from the cell body are called
A.      dendrites.
B.      axons.
C.      synapses.
D.      myelin sheaths.
3. The neuroglia that produce myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system are
A.      Schwann cells.
B.      oligodendrocytes.
C.      microglia.
D.      astroctyes.
4. The portion of the nervous system that is considered involuntary is the
A.      somatic nervous system.
B.      sensory nervous system.
C.      autonomic nervous system.
D.      motor nervous system.
5. All of the following are functions of the nervous system EXCEPT
A.      senses changes.
B.      analyzes changes.
C.      stores calcium.
D.      responses to changes.
6. The different charge between the outside and the inside of a neuron at rest is called
A.      action potential.
B.      synaptic potential.
C.      resting membrane potential.
D.      equilibrium potential.
7. The stage in an action potential that immediately follows depolarization is
A.      polarization.
B.      repolarization.
C.      threshold.
D.      the resting period.
8. The junction between two nerve cells is called
A.      neuromuscular junction.
B.      neuroglandular junction.
C.      gap junction.
D.      synapse.
9. Neurotransmitters are released at the
A.      dendrite.
B.      axon terminal.
C.      cell body.
D.      myelin sheath.
10. In the reflex arc, a muscle or gland is considered to be the
A.      receptor.
B.      integrating center.
C.      motor neuron.
D.      effector.


1. D        2. B    3. A      4. C     5. C      6. C      7. B       8. D      9. B     10. D 


1. All of the following are endocrine glands EXCEPT:
A.      adrenal glands
B.      sebaceous glands
C.      pineal glands
D.      pituitary glands

2. Hormones that enter target cells and bind to receptors in the nucleus are called
A.      steroid hormones.
B.      water soluble hormones.
C.      peptide hormones.
D.      second messengers.

3. The hormones regulating blood calcium levels are
A.      insulin and glucagon.
B.      glycogen and parathyroid hormone.
C.      parathyroid hormone and calcitonin.
D.      estrogen and progesterone.

4. All of the following are hormones of the anterior pituitary EXCEPT
A.      human growth hormone (GH).
B.      follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
C.      parathyroid hormone(PTH).
D.      thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

5. Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are stored and released by the
A.      posterior pituitary gland.
B.      anterior pituitary gland.
C.      thyroid gland.
D.      adrenal gland.

6. Calcitonin is a hormone of the
A.      adrenal cortex.
B.      thyroid gland.
C.      pituitary gland.
D.      thymus gland.

7. Mineralcorticoids
A.      are produced in the adrenal cortex.
B.      are steroid hormones.
C.      help regulate the homeostasis of sodium and potasium.
D.      all of the above.

8. Which of the following hormones are responsible for the "fight-or-flight" response?
A.      epinephrine and norepinephrine.
B.      insulin and glucagon.
C.      esrtogen and progesterone.
D.      thyroxin and melatonin.

9. The gland which can be classified as an endocrine and an exocrine gland is the
A.      thyroid.
B.      thymus.
C.      pancreas.
D.      pituitary.

10. . Glucagon
A.      accelerates the conversion of glycogen into glucose.
B.      slows down glucose formation from lactic acid.
C.      decreases the conversion of glycogen into glucose.
D.      speeds up protein synthesis within cells.


1. B      2. A    3. C      4. C     5. A      6. A      7. D       8. A      9. C     10. A 


1. Sperm production begins in the
A.      seminiferous tubules.
B.      epididymis.
C.      vas deferens.
D.      ejaculatory duct.

2. The cell produced by fertilization is called
A.      gamete.
B.      embryo.
C.      fetus.
D.      zygote.

3. The production of testosterone in the interstitial cells is stimulated by
A.      inhibin.
B.      luteinizing hormone (LH).
C.      follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
D.      progesterone.

4. Sperm maturation occurs in the
A.      seminiferous tubules.
B.      epididymis.
C.      vas deferens.
D.      urethra.

5. The layer of the uterine wall that is shed during menstruation is the
A.      endometrium.
B.      myometrium.
C.      epimetrium.
D.      None of the above.

6. The external genitalia of the female are collectively called
A.      labia.
B.      vulva.
C.      clitoris.
D.      mons pubis.

7.The hormone that works with estrogen to prepare the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg is
A.      LH.
B.      FSH.
C.      ADH.
D.      progesterone.

8. The average menstrual cycle is
A.      14 days.
B.      18 days.
C.      24 days.
D.      28 days.

9. The structure between the uterus and the vagina is the
A.      uterine tube.
B.      cervix.
C.      vulva.
D.      hymen.

10. The hormone that stimulates uterine contractions is
A.      oxytocin.
B.      estrogen.
C.      granular cell carcinoma.
D.      progesterone.


1. A      2. D    3. B    4. B     5. A      6. B      7. D       8. D      9. B     10. A 


1. All of the following belong to the lymphatic system EXCEPT
A.      lymph.
B.      lymphatic vessels.
C.      red bone marrow.
D.      yellow bone marrow.

2. Which of the following cells produce antibodies?
A.      T-lymphocytes
B.      B-lymphocytes
C.      monocytes
D.      phagocytes

3. Lymph nodes
A.      are bean-shaped organs.
B.      are located along lymphatic vessels.
C.      are scattered throughout the body.
D.      All of the above.

4. Worn-out and damaged red blood cells are destroyed in the
A.      thymus gland.
B.      tonsils.
C.      spleen.
D.      lymph nodes.

5. The first line of defense against disease-causing organisms is
A.      cell-based immunity.
B.      production of antibodies.
C.      inflammation.
D.      the intact skin.

6. Complement proteins
A.      are found in blood plasma.
B.      are present in infected cells.
C.      are produced by T-cells.
D.      are produced by B-cells.

7. All of the following are symptoms of inflammation EXCEPT
A.      pain
B.      redness
C.      fever
D.      swelling

8. Which of the following an act as an antigen?
A.      bacteria
B.      viruses
C.      food
D.      All of the above.

9. Vaccination is an example of
A.      naturally aquired active immunity.
B.      naturally acquired passive immunity.
C.      artifically acquired active immunity.
D.      artifically acquired passive immunity.

10. Cell-mediated immunity is provided by
A.      macrophages.
B.      basophils.
C.      T-cells.

D.      B-cells.


1. D      2. B    3. D    4. C     5. D      6. A      7. C       8. D      9. C     10. C