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1) The nonspecific ascending pathways ________.
A) are evolutionarily newer than the specific pathways
B) receive inputs from a single type of sensory receptor
C) are involved in the emotional aspects of perception
D) are also called the lemniscal system
Answer: C

2) The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________.
A) pons
B) thalamus
C) hypothalamus
D) medulla
Answer: C

3) Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.
A) midbrain
B) medulla
C) pons
D) cerebrum
Answer: C

4) The arbor vitae refers to ________.
A) cerebellar gray matter
B) cerebellar white matter
C) the pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum
D) flocculonodular nodes
Answer: B

5) The brain stem consists of the ________.
A) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla
B) midbrain, medulla, and pons
C) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain
D) midbrain only
Answer: B

6) The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.
A) prefrontal lobe
B) frontal lobe
C) temporal lobe
D) parietal lobe
Answer: C

7) Spinocerebellar tracts ________.
A) terminate in the spinal cord
B) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
C) give rise to conscious experience of perception
D) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord
Answer: B

8) The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.
A) outside, white matter on the inside, and a dorsal motor root
B) inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
C) inside, white matter on the outside, and a dorsal motor root
D) outside, white matter on the inside, and a ventral motor root
Answer: B

9) The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
A) arachnoid and epidura
B) arachnoid and pia
C) arachnoid and dura
D) dura and epidura
Answer: B

10) The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the
A) pons
B) medulla
C) midbrain
D) cerebrum
Answer: B

11) Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
A) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
B) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord
C) the thalamus
D) sympathetic ganglia
Answer: A

12) The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.
A) central fissure
B) longitudinal fissure
C) parieto-occipital fissure
D) lateral fissure
Answer: B

13) The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our ________.
A) emotional impact
B) working memory
C) recall and personality
D) learning abilities
Answer: A

14) A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
A) sulcus
B) fissure
C) gyrus
D) furrow
Answer: A

15) The cerebrospinal fluid ________.
A) is secreted by the arachnoid villi
B) enters the four ventricles after filling and circulating through the subarachnoid space
C) is secreted mostly by the neuroglia cells lining the brain ventricles
D) is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses and modified by ependymal cells
Answer: D

16) If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.
A) the spinal cord may be affected
B) the cranial nerves would not form
C) the hindbrain would not be present
D) the telencephalon would cease development
Answer: A

17) The central sulcus separates which lobes?
A) frontal from parietal
B) parietal from occipital
C) temporal from parietal
D) frontal from temporal
Answer: A

18) Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would
be ________.
A) anterior spinothalamic
B) reticulospinal
C) lateral spinothalamic
D) posterior spinothalamic
Answer: C

19) Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
A) cell bodies
B) dendrites
C) unmyelinated axons
D) fiber tracts
Answer: D

20) The hypothalamus ________.
A) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
B) is an important auditory and visual relay center
C) has the Pulvinar body as part of its structure
D) mediates sensations
Answer: A

21) The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
A) myelinated nerve fibers only
B) unmyelinated nerve fibers only
C) myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
D) soma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
Answer: C

22) A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ________.
A) rubrospinal
B) vestibulospinal
C) tectospinal
D) pyramidal
Answer: A

23) An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in
A) paraplegia
B) hemiplegia
C) quadriplegia
D) spinal shock only
Answer: A

24) Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
A) upper motor neurons
B) lower motor neurons
C) spinal nerve roots
D) neuromotor junction
Answer: A

25) Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.
A) gyri
B) sulci
C) fissures
D) ganglia
Answer: A

26) The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
A) longitudinal fissure
B) lateral sulcus
C) central sulcus
D) cranial fossa
Answer: B

27) Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.
A) molecular weight of types of neurons
B) counts of neurons per fiber bundle
C) structurally distinct cortical areas
D) rates of neural division in embryogenesis
Answer: C

28) Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
A) pyramidal and corticospinal
B) extrapyramidal and rubrospinal
C) segmental and nigrostriatal
D) supplementary and cerebellar-pontine
Answer: A

29) An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not
recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
A) calcarine cortex
B) primary visual area
C) visual association area
D) lateral geniculate body
Answer: C

30) Brocaʹs area ________.
A) corresponds to Brodmannʹs area 8
B) is usually found in the right hemisphere
C) serves the recognition of complex objects
D) is considered a motor speech area
Answer: D

31) The function of commissures is to connect ________.
A) adjacent areas of gray matter within a cerebral hemisphere
B) corresponding areas of the two hemispheres
C) areas of cortex with lower centers
D) pyramidal cells with corresponding cerebellar cells
Answer: B

32) The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
A) metabolic waste such as urea
B) nutrients such as glucose
C) alcohol
D) anesthetics
Answer: A

33) Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?
A) putamen
B) lentiform nucleus
C) globus pallidus
D) substantia nigra
Answer: D

34) All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
A) hippocampus
B) cingulate gyrus
C) amygdaloid nucleus
D) caudate nucleus
Answer: D

35) Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?
A) third ventricle
B) cerebral peduncles
C) corpora quadrigemina
D) red nucleus
Answer: A

36) The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called
A) consolidation
B) automatic memory
C) long-term memory
D) rehearsal
Answer: A

37) An electroencephalogram ________.
A) is a record of total body electrical activity
B) indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz
C) indicates an average amplitude of 20-100 V
D) can only detect abnormal electrical activity
Answer: B

38) The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the
cerebral cortex is the ________.
A) thalamus
B) reticular formation
C) pyramids
D) limbic system
Answer: B

39) Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
A) glucose
B) red blood cells
C) potassium
D) protein
Answer: B

40) REM sleep is associated with ________.
A) decreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure
B) decreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex
C) temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles
D) decreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex
Answer: C

41) Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12.
You would expect to find all of the following except ________.
A) paralysis of the lower extremities
B) loss of sensation below the level of injury
C) slurred speech
D) perspiration in the affected area
Answer: C

42) Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
A) pathologic sleep
B) loss of body temperature control
C) production of excessive quantities of urine
D) loss of proprioception
Answer: D

43) White matter of the spinal cord ________.
A) is composed of myelinated fibers only
B) ascends to higher PNS centers
C) has afferent fibers carrying impulses from peripheral sensory receptors
D) contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
Answer: D

44) Which statement about aging is most accurate?
A) The brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life.
B) Synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after the age of 35.
C) Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning
throughout life.
D) Learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial
Answer: C

45) Which association regarding the function and location of the cerebrum is most accurate?
A) sensory-anterior
B) motor-medial
C) sensory-medial
D) motor-anterior
Answer: D

46) Brain wave amplitude ________.
A) reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously
B) is an average of about 1 V
C) results from subtraction of delta waves from theta waves
D) is the measure of activity of specific individual neurons
Answer: A

47) Declarative memory is not stored in the ________.
A) hippocampus
B) amygdala
C) thalamus
D) mammillary body
Answer: D

48) Huntingtonʹs disease ________.
A) begins to appear at ages 10 to 15
B) has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease
C) usually subsides by ages 35 to 40
D) may be a result of a defective 26th chromosome
Answer: B

49) The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.
A) face recognition
B) fact learning
C) spatial learning
D) skill learning
Answer: D

50) Storing information in long-term memory ________.
A) depends on the remaining capacity of long-term memory
B) is interfered with by emotional arousal
C) is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine
D) is always dependent on the formation of conscious impressions
Answer: C

51) Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the
equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of
postural muscles are the ________.
A) red nuclei
B) vestibular nuclei
C) reticular nuclei
D) superior colliculi
Answer: B

52) Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
A) hippocampus
B) medulla
C) amygdala
D) prefrontal cortex
Answer: B

53) The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that
your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.
A) olfactory cortex
B) gusatory cortex
C) vestibular cortex
D) visceral sensory area
Answer: D

54) Which statement about coma is true?
A) Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.
B) During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state.
C) Coma is neurologically identical to syncope.
D) Coma is rarely caused by damage to brain stem structures.
Answer: A

55) Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of
A) Huntingtonʹs disease
B) Parkinsonʹs disease
C) cerebellar disease
D) spinal cord disease
Answer: B

56) Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?
A) contusion
B) concussion
C) hemorrhage
D) swelling
Answer: B

57) Declarative memory ________.
A) is the ability to learn specific information
B) is best remembered in the doing
C) is hard to unlearn when learned once
D) usually involves motor skills
Answer: A

58) Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
A) postcentral gyrus
B) gustatory cortex
C) red nuclei
D) Wernickeʹs area
Answer: C

59) Which statement is not true?
A) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again
in old age.
B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
C) Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
D) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Answer: D

60) Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
A) During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked.
B) Petit mal epilepsy typically begins in adolescence and is often severely disabling.
C) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke,
infection, and tumor.
D) The aura in grand mal epilepsy typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.
Answer: C

61) White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception
of the ________.
A) corpus callosum
B) cerebral cortex
C) corticospinal tracts
D) outer portion of the spinal cord
Answer: B

62) Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in
the ________.
A) spinal cord
B) medulla
C) thalamus
D) somatosensory cortex
Answer: C

63) Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or
weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.
A) spinal cord
B) premotor cortex
C) primary motor cortex
D) rubrospinal tracts
Answer: B

64) ________ waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children.
A) Alpha
B) Beta
C) Delta
D) Theta

Answer: D


1. Sel saraf yang sifatnya membawa rangsang dari pusat saraf menuju alat-alat panca indra disebut ….
a. neuron
b. motorik
c. sensorik
d. ganglion
e. sensibel

2. Saraf parasimpatetik berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas beberapa organ tubuh, kecuali ….
a. kontraksi pembuluh darah
b. pengecilan pupil
c. peningkatan sekresi kelenjar saliva
d. pengecilan bronkus
e. kontraksi dinding usus

3. Urutan jalan rangsangan pada busur refleks mengikut pola ….
a. reseptor – serabut saraf sensorik – saraf tulang belakang – serabut saraf motorik – efektor
b. reseptor – serabut saraf motorik – saraf tulang belakang – serabut saraf sensorik – efektor
c. reseptor – saraf tulang belakang – serabut saraf sensorik – serabut saraf motorik – efektor
d. reseptor – serabut saraf sensorik – otak – serabut saraf motorik – efektor
e. reseptor – serabut saraf sensorik- serabut saraf motorik – konektor – efektor

4. Dari berbagai macam hormon yang anda kenal, ada di antaranya yang dihasilkanoleh pankreas, yaitu ….
a. tripsin
b. erepsin
c. insulin
d. amilase
e. pepsin

5. Adrenalin adalah hormon yang berfungsi ….
a. mengatur metabolisme
b. memengaruhi kerja hormon lainnya
c. merangsang kerja usus
d. mengatur metabolisme senyawa fosfat
e. menurunkan tekanan darah

6. Hormon yang mengatur terhadap pematangan ciri seks sekunder adalah ….a. aldosteronb. epineprinc. tiroksind. testosterone. Insulin

7. Berikut adalah beberapa jenis hormon yang dihasilkan oleh manusia.
1. Adrenalin
2. Insulin
3. Estrogen
4. Tiroksin
5. Progesteron
6. Testosteron
7. Prolaktin
8. Gastrin
Hormon-hormon yang berperan dalam kegiatan reproduksi adalah ….
a. 1, 3, 4
b. 2, 5, 7
c. 3, 6, 8
d. 4, 6, 8
e. 3, 5, 6

8. Tumbuhnya kumis dan membesarnya suara pada pria remaja dipengaruhi hormon. Peranan hormon dalam peristiwa di atas ….
a. memengaruhi pertumbuhan
b. mengatur kegiatan alat-alat tubuh
c. memengaruhi tumbuhnya sifat kelamin sekunder
d. memacu pemasakan spermatozoid
e. memengaruhi daya tahan tubuh

9. Uji refleks sering dilakukan dengan cara memukulkan benda lunak perlahan-lahan ke bagian bawah tempurung lutut sehingga secara tidak sadar tungkai bawah bergerak ke depan. Busur refleks yang menghasilkan gerakan itu mempunyai jalur sebagai berikut ….
a. lutut – saraf motorik – sumsum tulang belakang- saraf sensorik- kaki
b. lutut – saraf sensorik- sumsum tulang belakang- saraf motorik – kaki
c. lutut – saraf sensorik- otak – saraf motorik – kaki
d. lutut – saraf motorik – otak – saraf sensorik- kakie. lutut – saraf sensoris konektor menyilang – saraf motorik kaki

10. Kelainan mata yang dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan kacamata lensa cekung adalah ….
a. miopi
b. hipermetropi
c. presbiopi
d. emetropi
e. trakoma

11. Perhatikan penampang mata berikut ini.

Bagian yang berfungsi menggerakkan bola mata adalah ….
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5

12. Kelenjar endokrin ikut menentukan ciri-ciri fungsional organisme terutama yang menyangkut fungsi berikut, kecuali…..
a. nutrisi
b. respirasi
c. ekskresi
d. regulasi
e. iritabilitas

13. Hormon yang memengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tubuh manusia adalah…..
a. parathormon
b. Adrenalin
c. kortison
d. tiroksin
e. oksitoksin

14. Metabolisme kalsium diatur oleh hormon yang dihasilkan kelenjar….
a. anak  gondok
b. anak ginjal
c. gondok
d. timus
e. pankreas
15. Salah satu cacat tubuh akibat kekurangan hormon adalah kretinisme. Defisiesihormon yang menyebabkan kretinisme tersebut adalah ….
a. hipofisis
b. prolaktin
c. tiroksin
d. paratiroid
e. somatotrop

16. Penderita penyakit gondok disebabkan oleh ….
a. rusaknya sistem indra
b. kekurangan vitamin E pada gizinya
c. virus
d. kekurangan yodium
e. bakteri

17. Jika orang sedang marah, jantungnya berdebardebar, pernapasan lebih cepat, dan gerakan-gerakannya serba cepat. Hal tersebut disebabkan pengaruh hormon…..
a. insulin
b. sekskretin
c. adrenalin
d. tiroksin
e. asetilkolin

18. Hormon yang merangsang pengeluaran getah pankreas adalah ….
a. sekretin
b. kolesistokinin
c. gastrin
d. somatrotopin
e. Epineprin

19. Apa yang akan terjadi dalam organ hati apabila kadar gula dalam tubuh terlalu tinggi, maka hati akan bertugas….
a. mengeluarkan hormon insulin untuk menurunkan kadar gula dalam darah
b. mengeluarkan hormon adrenalin untuk menurunkan kadar gula dalam darah
c. menyimpan gula dalam bentuk glikogen (gula otot)
d. mengubah gula menjadi bilirubine. menyimpan gula dalam biliverdin

20. Lapisan luar pada mata merupakan tempat terdapatnya….
a. retina
b. koroid
c. sklera
d. kornea

e. pupil